Novel Biomarkers of Physical Activity Maintenance in Midlife Women: Preliminary Investigation.

PubMed Feed (Donnelly J and KU) - Thu, 04/26/2018 - 10:18
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Novel Biomarkers of Physical Activity Maintenance in Midlife Women: Preliminary Investigation.

Biores Open Access. 2018;7(1):39-46

Authors: Bosak KA, Papa VB, Brucks MG, Savage CR, Donnelly JE, Martin LE

Abstract
The precision health initiative is leading the discovery of novel biomarkers as important indicators of biological processes or responses to behavior, such as physical activity. Neural biomarkers identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) hold promise to inform future research, and ultimately, for transfer to the clinical setting to optimize health outcomes. This study investigated resting-state and functional brain biomarkers between midlife women who were maintaining physical activity in accordance with the current national guidelines and previously acquired age-matched sedentary controls. Approval was obtained from the Human Subjects Committee. Participants included nondiabetic, healthy weight to overweight (body mass index 19-29.9 kg/m2) women (n = 12) aged 40-64 years. Control group data were used from participants enrolled in our previous functional MRI study and baseline resting-state MRI data from a subset of sedentary (<500 kcal of physical activity per week) midlife women who were enrolled in a 9-month exercise intervention conducted in our imaging center. Differential activation of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and greater connectivity with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) was identified between physically active women and sedentary controls. After correcting for multiple comparisons, these differences in biomarkers of physical activity maintenance did not reach statistical significance. Preliminary evidence in this small sample suggests that neural biomarkers of physical activity maintenance involve activations in the brain region associated with areas involved in implementing goal-directed behavior. Specifically, activation of the IFG and connectivity with the dlPFC is identified as a neural biomarker to explain and predict long-term physical activity maintenance for healthy aging. Future studies should evaluate these biomarker links with relevant clinical correlations.

PMID: 29682403 [PubMed]

Physical activity and academic achievement across the curriculum: Results from a 3-year cluster-randomized trial.

PubMed Feed (Donnelly J and KU) - Thu, 04/26/2018 - 10:18
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Physical activity and academic achievement across the curriculum: Results from a 3-year cluster-randomized trial.

Prev Med. 2017 Jun;99:140-145

Authors: Donnelly JE, Hillman CH, Greene JL, Hansen DM, Gibson CA, Sullivan DK, Poggio J, Mayo MS, Lambourne K, Szabo-Reed AN, Herrmann SD, Honas JJ, Scudder MR, Betts JL, Henley K, Hunt SL, Washburn RA

Abstract
We compared changes in academic achievement across 3years between children in elementary schools receiving the Academic Achievement and Physical Activity Across the Curriculum intervention (A+PAAC), in which classroom teachers were trained to deliver academic lessons using moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to a non-intervention control. Elementary schools in eastern Kansas (n=17) were cluster randomized to A+PAAC (N=9, target ≥100min/week) or control (N=8). Academic achievement (math, reading, spelling) was assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition (WIAT-III) in a sample of children (A+PAAC=316, Control=268) in grades 2 and 3 at baseline (Fall 2011) and repeated each spring across 3years. On average 55min/week of A+PACC lessons were delivered each week across the intervention. Baseline WIAT-III scores (math, reading, spelling) were significantly higher in students in A+PAAC compared with control schools and improved in both groups across 3years. However, linear mixed modeling, accounting for baseline between group differences in WIAT-III scores, ethnicity, family income, and cardiovascular fitness, found no significant impact of A+PAAC on any of the academic achievement outcomes as determined by non-significant group by time interactions. A+PAAC neither diminished or improved academic achievement across 3-years in elementary school children compared with controls. Our target of 100min/week of active lessons was not achieved; however, students attending A+PAAC schools received an additional 55min/week of MVPA which may be associated with both physical and mental health benefits, without a reduction in time devoted to academic instruction.

PMID: 28193490 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The feasibility of using pedometers for self-report of steps and accelerometers for measuring physical activity in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities across an 18-month intervention.

PubMed Feed (Donnelly J and KU) - Thu, 04/19/2018 - 09:18
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The feasibility of using pedometers for self-report of steps and accelerometers for measuring physical activity in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities across an 18-month intervention.

J Intellect Disabil Res. 2017 Aug;61(8):792-801

Authors: Ptomey LT, Willis EA, Lee J, Washburn RA, Gibson CA, Honas JJ, Donnelly JE

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Improving physical activity in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) is recommended to improve weight loss and general health. However, in order to determine the success of physical activity interventions, identification of feasible methods for assessment of physical activities is necessary. The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of adults with IDD to track daily steps and wear an accelerometer.
METHODS: Overweight/obese adults with mild to moderate IDD followed a diet and physical activity program for 18 months. All participants were asked to wear a pedometer and track steps daily by using a pedometer and to provide accelerometer data for 7 days at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Adherence to the pedometer protocol and plausibility of the number of recorded steps were assessed, and these measures along with average wear time of the accelerometer were recorded.
RESULTS: Data were collected from 149 participants (36.5 ± 12.2 years of age, 57% female). Participants recorded a step value on 81.5% of days across the 18-month study, with 40.9% of written days classified as plausible. When wearing the accelerometer, 26.8% of participants met the recommended 4-day/10-h wear time criterion at baseline, and 22.6, 24.8 and 18.8% met the criterion at 6, 12 and 18 months, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Adults with IDD will adhere reasonably well to wearing a pedometer long term, but may be unable to record the step data accurately. Furthermore, adults with IDD have poor compliance with accelerometer protocols, and future studies should determine if a shorter wear time protocol would produce valid data in this population.

PMID: 28707359 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Changes in cognitive function after a 12-week exercise intervention in adults with Down syndrome.

PubMed Feed (Donnelly J and KU) - Thu, 03/08/2018 - 05:16
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Changes in cognitive function after a 12-week exercise intervention in adults with Down syndrome.

Disabil Health J. 2018 Feb 26;:

Authors: Ptomey LT, Szabo AN, Willis EA, Gorczyca AM, Greene JL, Danon JC, Donnelly JE

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Between 250,000 and 400,000 individuals in the United States are diagnosed with Down syndrome (DS). Nearly all adults with DS will develop Alzheimer's disease pathology starting in their thirties. Recent studies suggest that increased physical activity (PA) may be important for maintaining components of cognition, including memory.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in cognitive function after completion of a 12-week exercise intervention in adults with DS.
METHODS: Participants were randomized to attend 30-minute group exercise sessions 1 or 2 times a week for 12 weeks. The exercise sessions were delivered via video conferencing on a tablet computer to groups of 5-8 participants. Sessions consisted of aerobic based exercises such as walking and jogging to music, dancing, as well as strength based exercises such as vertical jumps, bicep curls, and squats. Cognitive function was measured at baseline and end of study using the Cantab Dementia Battery for iPads, which assessed the cognitive domains of memory, attention, and reaction time.
RESULTS: Twenty-seven participants (27.9 ± 7.1 years of age, 40.7% female) enrolled and completed the 12-week intervention. Participants randomized to 1 session/week averaged 26.6 ± 3.0 min/week of PA from the group exercise session. Participants randomized to 2 sessions/week averaged 57.7 ± 15.3 min/week of PA from the group exercise sessions. Participants improved their performance on the two memory variables (p = 0.048 and p = 0.069).
CONCLUSION: Increased exercise may have positive changes on memory and other cognitive functions.

PMID: 29501470 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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