The Family Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey: Comparisons with Obesity and Physical Activity in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

PubMed Feed (Donnelly J and KU) - Tue, 01/04/2022 - 05:00

J Autism Dev Disord. 2022 Jan 4. doi: 10.1007/s10803-021-05415-9. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at a heightened risk for obesity. Family-level measures of nutrition and physical activity may help explain factors contributing to disproportionate rates of weight gain. Twenty adolescents with ASD participated in baseline testing for a study to assess the feasibility of remotely-delivered yoga. Parents completed the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) survey and anthropometrics and physical activity were assessed in the adolescents. A median split was applied to the FNPA score to create high and low obesogenic environments and nonparametric O'Brien's multiple endpoint tests were used to evaluate the differences. Between-group differences were found in anthropometrics (p = 0.01) but not physical activity (p = 0.72). Implications for a multifaceted family-based approach to obesity prevention are discussed.

PMID:34982325 | DOI:10.1007/s10803-021-05415-9

Changes in physical activity across a 6-month weight loss intervention in adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities

PubMed Feed (Donnelly J and KU) - Thu, 12/16/2021 - 05:00

J Intellect Disabil Res. 2021 Dec 16. doi: 10.1111/jir.12909. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adolescents and young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have high rates of obesity and low levels of physical activity. This analysis examined changes in light, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time, and the association between changes in MVPA and weight loss in adolescents and young adults with IDD and overweight and obesity participating in a 6-month multi-component weight loss intervention.

METHODS: Adolescents and young adults with IDD and overweight or obesity (body mass index ≥ 85 percentile, n = 110, age ~16 years, 52.7% female) and a parent were randomised to one of three intervention groups: face-to-face delivery/conventional reduced energy diet (n = 36), remote delivery (RD)/conventional reduced energy diet (n = 39), or RD/reduced energy enhanced stop light diet (eSLD) (n = 35.) Participants were asked to engage in 60 min/day of MVPA on 5 or more days/wk. Participants and a parent attended twice monthly education/behavioural counselling sessions with a health educator to assist participants in complying with dietary and MVPA recommendations. Education/counselling in the RD arms was delivered remotely using video conferencing, and self-monitoring of MVPA and daily steps was completed using a wireless activity tracker. Education/counselling in the face-to-face arm was delivered during home-visits and self-monitoring of MVPA and daily steps was completed by self-report using paper tracking forms designed for individuals with IDD. MVPA, light activity, and sedentary time were assessed over 7 days at baseline and 6 months using a portable accelerometer (ActiGraph wGT3x-BT).

RESULTS: Mixed modelling analysis completed using participants with valid accelerometer data (i.e. ≥4-10 h days) at baseline (n = 68) and 6 months (n = 30) revealed no significant changes in light, moderate- MVPA, or sedentary time across the 6-month intervention (all P > 0.05). Participants obtained 15.2 ± 21.5 min/day of MVPA at baseline and 19.7 ± 19.7 min/day at 6 months (P = 0.119). Mixed modelling indicated no significant effects of group (P = 0.79), time (P = 0.10), or group-by-time interaction (P = 0.21) on changes in MVPA from baseline to 6 months. Correlational analysis conducted on participants with valid accelerometer data at both baseline and 6 months (n = 24) revealed no significant associations between baseline sedentary time (r = 0.10, P = 0.40) and baseline MVPA (r = -0.22, P = 0.30) and change in MVPA across the 6-month intervention. Additionally, attendance at education/counselling sessions (r = 0.26, P = 0.22) and frequency of self-monitoring of MVPA were not significantly associated with change in MVPA from baseline to 6 months (r = 0.26, P = 0.44). Baseline MVPA (r = 0.02, P = 0.92) and change in MVPA from baseline to 6 months (r = 0.13, P = 0.30) were not associated with changes in body weight across the 6-month intervention.

CONCLUSION: We observed a non-significant increase in MVPA (30%), which was not associated with the magnitude of weight loss in a sample of adolescents and young adults with IDD who participated in a 6-month multi-component weight loss intervention. Additional strategies to increase MVPA in adolescents and young adults with IDD participating in weight loss interventions need to be developed and evaluated.

PMID:34915594 | DOI:10.1111/jir.12909

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