Examination of three-factor eating questionnaire subscale scores on weight loss and weight loss maintenance in a clinical intervention
BMC Psychol. 2022 Apr 15;10(1):101. doi: 10.1186/s40359-022-00806-8.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to examine three-factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ) scores at baseline and post-intervention (6 months) on successful weight loss and weight maintenance in an 18-month behavioral weight management intervention for adults with overweight and obesity.
METHODS: TFEQ and weight were assessed at baseline, 6, and 18 months. Logistic regression models were used to examine scores at baseline on disinhibition, restraint, and perceived hunger factors in the TFEQ on 5% body weight loss at 6 months and 6-month scores to predict 5% weight maintenance at 18 months while controlling for age, sex, and baseline weight.
RESULTS: Participants (n = 287; age = 43.8 ± 10.36 years; female = 64.1%; weight = 222.5 ± 39.02 pounds; BMI = 34.73 ± 4.56) were included for analysis. Dietary restraint at baseline was the only significant predictor of 5% weight loss at 6 months. None of the TFEQ subscale scores at 6 months predicted 5% weight maintenance at 18 months. The model examining weight loss at 6 months accounted for 7% of the variance of the outcome and 11% of the variance of weight maintenance at 18 months.
CONCLUSION: Dietary restraint is a unique eating behavior associated with weight loss at 6 months beyond other eating behaviors measured by the TFEQ in an adult sample enrolled in a weight loss intervention. No other subscale scores were significant at 6 months or at 18 months. Future research should consider how to promote flexible control and discourage adoption of rigid restraint behaviors since the latter is associated with disordered eating patterns.
The Impact of Exercise and Cumulative Physical Activity on Energy Intake and Diet Quality in Adults Enrolled in The Midwest Exercise Trial for The Prevention of Weight Regain
Br J Nutr. 2022 Mar 7:1-32. doi: 10.1017/S0007114521005122. Online ahead of print.
The purpose of this study was to assess impact of different volumes of exercise as well as cumulative moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), on energy intake and diet quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), across a 12-month weight maintenance intervention. Participants were asked to attend group behavioral sessions, eat a diet designed for weight maintenance, and exercise either 150, 225, or 300 mins/week. Dietary intake was assessed by 3-day food records, and MVPA was assessed by accelerometry. Two hundred and twenty-four participants (42.5 years of age, 82% female) provided valid dietary data for at least one time point. There was no evidence of group differences in energy intake, total HEI-2010 score, or any of the HEI-2010 component scores (all p > 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, time, group, and group-by-time interactions there was an effect of cumulative MVPA on energy intake (1.08, p = 0.04), total HEI-2010 scores (-0.02, p = 0.003), sodium (-0.006, p = 0.002) and empty calorie scores (-0.007, p = 0.004. There was evidence of a small relationship between cumulative daily EI and weight (β: 0.00187 95% CI 0.001, p= 0.003). However, there was no evidence for a relationship between HEI total score (β: -0.006, 95% CI -0.07-0.06) or component scores (all p > 0.05) and change in weight across time. The results of this study suggests that increased cumulative MVPA is associated with small, clinically insignificant, increases in energy intake and decreases in HEI scores.
Intrapersonal, interpersonal and environmental correlates of moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time in adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities
J Intellect Disabil Res. 2022 Feb 21. doi: 10.1111/jir.12920. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Although correlates of physical activity (PA) have been extensively examined in both children and adolescents who are typically developing, little is known about correlates of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time in adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Therefore, we examined intrapersonal, interpersonal and environmental factors and their association with device-based MVPA and sedentary time in adolescents with IDD.
METHODS: MVPA and sedentary time was assessed using a hip-worn ActiGraph model wGT3x-BT tri-axial accelerometer across a 7-day period in adolescents with IDD and one of their parents. Pearson and point-biserial correlations were calculated to inspect the associations of PA (MVPA, sedentary time) with intrapersonal factors (demographic characteristic, BMI, waist circumference, motor ability, muscle strength, grip strength, cardiovascular fitness and self-efficacy for PA), interpersonal factors (parent demographics, parent BMI, parent MVPA and sedentary time, family social support for PA, parent barriers and support for PA, parent's beliefs/attitudes towards PA and number of siblings), and environmental factors (meteorologic season and COVID-19). Ordinary least squares regression was used to estimate the unique contributions of key factors to PA after controlling for participants' age, sex, race, waist circumference and total wear time.
RESULTS: Ninety-two adolescents (15.5 ± 3.0 years old, 21.7% non-White, 6.5% Hispanic, 56.5% female) provided valid accelerometer data. Average sedentary time was 494.6 ± 136.4 min/day and average MVPA was 19.8 ± 24.2 min/day. Age (r = 0.27, P = 0.01), diagnosis of congenital heart disease (r = -0.26, P = 0.01) and parent sedentary time (r = 0.30, P = 0.01) were correlated with sedentary time. BMI (r = -0.24, P = 0.03), waist circumference (r = -0.28, P = 0.01), identifying as White (r = -0.23, P = 0.03) and parent MVPA (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) were correlated with MVPA. After adjusting for the adolescent's age, sex, race, waist circumference, and total wear time, the association between parent and adolescent MVPA remained significant (b = 0.55, P < 0.01, partial η2 = 0.11).
CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide evidence that race, waist circumference and parental MVPA may influence the amount of MVPA in adolescents with IDD. The limited available information and the potential health benefits of increased MVPA highlight the need to evaluate the effectiveness of multi-component interventions targeting both intrapersonal and interpersonal levels to promote increased PA in adolescents with IDD.