Pre-post intervention exploring cognitive function and relationships with weight loss, intervention adherence and dropout
Health Psychol Behav Med. 2023 Jan 6;11(1):2162528. doi: 10.1080/21642850.2022.2162528. eCollection 2023.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between baseline cognitive function, intervention dropout, adherence and 3-month weight loss (WL) when controlling for confounding demographic variables.
METHODS: 107 (Mage = 40.9 yrs.), BMI in the overweight and obese range (BMI = 35.6 kg/m2), men (N = 17) and women (N = 90) completed a 3-month WL intervention. Participants attended weekly behavioral sessions, comply with a reduced calorie diet, and complete 100 min of physical activity (PA)/wk. Cognitive function tasks at baseline included Flanker (attention), Stroop (executive control) and working memory, demographics, body weight and cardiovascular fitness were assessed at baseline. Session attendance, adherence to PA and diet were recorded weekly.
RESULTS: Baseline attention was positively correlated with age (p < .05), education (p < .05), attendance (p < .05), diet (p < .05) and PA (p < .05). Baseline executive control (p < .05) and working memory (p < .05) were each associated with % WL. Baseline executive control (p < .01) and working memory (p < .001) were also each associated with education. ANOVA indicated that baseline attention (p < .01) was associated with WL, specifically for comparing those who achieved 5-10% WL (p < .01) and those who achieved greater than 10% WL (p < .01) to those who dropped.
SIGNIFICANCE: Results suggest that stronger baseline attention is associated with completion of a 3-mo. WL intervention. Executive control and working memory are associated with amount of WL achieved.
NCT REGISTRATION: US NIH Clinical Trials, NCT01664715.
The prevalence of obesity and lifestyle behaviors of parents of youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities
Disabil Health J. 2022 Dec 14:101430. doi: 10.1016/j.dhjo.2022.101430. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Parents of youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) may have a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity and poorer weight management behaviors compared to the general population.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of overweight/obesity and related socioeconomic and lifestyle factors including diet quality, physical activity, and reported health habits in parents of youth with IDD.
METHODS: We assessed: BMI (kg/m2), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), fruit and vegetable intake (FVI), parental diet and physical activity habits, and socioeconomic characteristics. Associations of BMI on MVPA and FVI were assessed with Spearman's correlation; differences in BMI by parental diet and physical activity habits were assessed with Kruskall-Wallis tests; and the relationships of BMI to household income, race, and education were assessed with Kendall Tau-b and Mann Whitney U tests.
RESULTS: Data was obtained from 110 parents (97.3% female) who were study partners for their adolescents/young adults with IDD participating in a weight loss clinical trial. Approximately 81% of parents were overweight or obese (25.7% overweight, 55.1% obese), with 46.3% and 20% meeting the recommended U.S. guidelines for MVPA and FVI, respectively. Higher FVI and higher income were significantly associated with lower parent BMI. BMI was significantly lower in parents who reported to be physically active and choose healthy food.
CONCLUSION: We observed a high prevalence of overweight/obesity, low FVI and low levels of MVPA in parents of adolescents with IDD. These observations suggest that interventions designed to address these factors have the potential to improve the health and wellbeing of both parents and adolescents with IDD.
CLINICAL TRIALS NUMBER: NCT02561754.
Weight loss in adolescents with down syndrome compared to adolescents with other intellectual disabilities enrolled in an 18-month randomized weight management trial
Front Pediatr. 2022 Nov 2;10:1022738. doi: 10.3389/fped.2022.1022738. eCollection 2022.
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the efficacy of weight management interventions in adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS).
OBJECTIVE: To compare weight change and intervention compliance between adolescents with DS compared to adolescents with non-DS related intellectual disabilities (ID) who were enrolled in an 18-month weight management trial.
METHODS: Participants were adolescents (13-21 years) with mild to moderate ID and overweight or obesity. Participants were randomized in a 1:1:1 allocation to one of 3 intervention arms for an 18-month weight management trial: face-to-face/conventional diet (FTF/CD), remote delivery/conventional diet (RD/CD), or remote delivery/enhanced Stop Light Diet (RD/eSLD). Anthropometrics were assessed at baseline 6, 12, and 18 months by staff blinded to the intervention, and self-monitoring data was collected across the 18-month study. As an unpowered, post-hoc, secondary analysis, two-sample t-tests were used to compare the weight change across 6,12, and 18 mos. and compliance across 18 mos. between adolescents with and without DS randomized to each intervention arm.
RESULTS: Adolescents with ID (n = 110) were randomized to one of three intervention arms: FTF/CD (n = 36, DS = 17, other ID = 19), RD/CD (n = 39, DS = 21, other ID = 18) or RD/eSLD (n = 35, DS = 15, other ID = 20). Body weight at 18 months was obtained from 82%, 76% and 73% of participants with DS and 84%, 83% and 75% of participants with other ID randomized to the FTF/CD, RD/CD, and RD/eSLD arms, respectively Weight change across 18 months was -0.2 ± 8.8 kg (-0.5%), -0.3 ± 5.3 kg (-0.7%), and -2.6 ± 5.0 kg (-4.0%) in adolescents with DS randomized to the FTF/CD, RD/CD and RD/eSLD arms, respectively. There were no significant differences in change in body weight or BMI across 18 months between adolescents with DS or those with other ID in any of the 3 intervention arms (all p > 0.05). Additionally, there were no significant differences in intervention compliance between adolescents with and without DS across 18 mos. (all p > 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with DS respond to a multi-component weight management intervention similar to those with others ID.
The impact of a group based, remotely delivered weight loss intervention in women with polycystic ovary syndrome on ovulation, quality of life and body composition
Front Reprod Health. 2022 Jul 22;4:940945. doi: 10.3389/frph.2022.940945. eCollection 2022.
BACKGROUND: Obesity and visceral adiposity are associated with anovulation. The most common cause of anovulatory infertility in women of reproductive age is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We conducted this formative study to examine the effects of a remotely delivered, group-based lifestyle program for women with overweight/obesity and PCOS on ovulation, PCOS related quality of life (PCOSQ) and body composition.
METHODS: Women with anovulatory infertility caused by PCOS (N = 12) were enrolled in a 6-month high-intensity weight management intervention. Participants were asked to attend 45 min., group behavioral lifestyle sessions, delivered remotely by a registered dietitian weekly across the 6-mo. study and comply with a reduced energy diet, increased physical activity (225 min/wk.), and self-monitoring of weight, physical activity and diet. Diets consisted of five portion-controlled meals (three shakes + two entrees), at least five servings of fruits/vegetables, and ad libitum non-caloric beverages daily. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to assess changes in outcomes across the intervention.
RESULTS: Twelve women received the weight loss intervention (mean age = 32.7 ± 4.2 yrs., BMI = 36.8 ± 4.5 kg/m2, 92% college educated), and 8 completed the intervention. Eight (67%) women reported ovulating during the intervention with an average time to ovulation of 57 ± 45 days. Women lost an average of 3.85 ± 5.94 kg (p = 0.02), decreased their BMI (-1.61 ± 1.09 kg/m2; p = 0.04), and waist circumference (-4.54 ± 3.03 cm; p = 0.04) over the 6-mo. intervention. Additionally, self-reported menstrual problems measured by PCOSQ significantly improved over the study (p = 0.03).
CONCLUSION: A multicomponent group-based, remotely delivered, lifestyle intervention delivered remotely is a feasible and potentially scalable option to achieve clinically relevant (>3%) weight loss in women with PCOS.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT03677362.