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Obesity is associated with altered mid-insula functional connectivity to limbic regions underlying appetitive responses to foods.

Wed, 09/27/2017 - 16:11
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Obesity is associated with altered mid-insula functional connectivity to limbic regions underlying appetitive responses to foods.

J Psychopharmacol. 2017 Sep 01;:269881117728429

Authors: Avery JA, Powell JN, Breslin FJ, Lepping RJ, Martin LE, Patrician TM, Donnelly JE, Savage CR, Simmons WK

Abstract
Obesity is fundamentally a disorder of energy balance. In obese individuals, more energy is consumed than is expended, leading to excessive weight gain through the accumulation of adipose tissue. Complications arising from obesity, including cardiovascular disease, elevated peripheral inflammation, and the development of Type II diabetes, make obesity one of the leading preventable causes of morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is of paramount importance to both individual and public health that we understand the neural circuitry underlying the behavioral regulation of energy balance. To this end, we sought to examine obesity-related differences in the resting state functional connectivity of the dorsal mid-insula, a region of gustatory and interoceptive cortex associated with homeostatically sensitive responses to food stimuli. Within the present study, obese and healthy weight individuals completed resting fMRI scans during varying interoceptive states, both while fasting and after a standardized meal. We examined group differences in the pre- versus post-meal functional connectivity of the mid-insula, and how those differences were related to differences in self-reported hunger ratings and ratings of meal pleasantness. Obese and healthy weight individuals exhibited opposing patterns of eating-related functional connectivity between the dorsal mid-insula and multiple brain regions involved in reward, valuation, and satiety, including the medial orbitofrontal cortex, the dorsal striatum, and the ventral striatum. In particular, healthy weight participants exhibited a significant positive relationship between changes in hunger and changes in medial orbitofrontal functional connectivity, while obese participants exhibited a complementary negative relationship between hunger and ventral striatum connectivity to the mid-insula. These obesity-related alterations in dorsal mid-insula functional connectivity patterns may signify a fundamental difference in the experience of food motivation in obese individuals, wherein approach behavior toward food is guided more by reward-seeking than by homeostatically relevant interoceptive information from the body.

PMID: 28944718 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The feasibility of using pedometers for self-report of steps and accelerometers for measuring physical activity in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities across an 18-month intervention.

Wed, 07/19/2017 - 10:16
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The feasibility of using pedometers for self-report of steps and accelerometers for measuring physical activity in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities across an 18-month intervention.

J Intellect Disabil Res. 2017 Aug;61(8):792-801

Authors: Ptomey LT, Willis EA, Lee J, Washburn RA, Gibson CA, Honas JJ, Donnelly JE

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Improving physical activity in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) is recommended to improve weight loss and general health. However, in order to determine the success of physical activity interventions, identification of feasible methods for assessment of physical activities is necessary. The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of adults with IDD to track daily steps and wear an accelerometer.
METHODS: Overweight/obese adults with mild to moderate IDD followed a diet and physical activity program for 18 months. All participants were asked to wear a pedometer and track steps daily by using a pedometer and to provide accelerometer data for 7 days at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Adherence to the pedometer protocol and plausibility of the number of recorded steps were assessed, and these measures along with average wear time of the accelerometer were recorded.
RESULTS: Data were collected from 149 participants (36.5 ± 12.2 years of age, 57% female). Participants recorded a step value on 81.5% of days across the 18-month study, with 40.9% of written days classified as plausible. When wearing the accelerometer, 26.8% of participants met the recommended 4-day/10-h wear time criterion at baseline, and 22.6, 24.8 and 18.8% met the criterion at 6, 12 and 18 months, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Adults with IDD will adhere reasonably well to wearing a pedometer long term, but may be unable to record the step data accurately. Furthermore, adults with IDD have poor compliance with accelerometer protocols, and future studies should determine if a shorter wear time protocol would produce valid data in this population.

PMID: 28707359 [PubMed - in process]

Energy Expenditure and Intensity of Classroom Physical Activity in Elementary School Children.

Wed, 07/19/2017 - 10:16
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Energy Expenditure and Intensity of Classroom Physical Activity in Elementary School Children.

J Phys Act Health. 2016 Jun;13(6 Suppl 1):S53-6

Authors: Honas JJ, Willis EA, Herrmann SD, Greene JL, Washburn RA, Donnelly JE

Abstract
BACKGROUND: There is limited data regarding objectively measured energy cost and intensity of classroom instruction. Therefore, the purpose of current study was to objectively measure energy cost and subsequently calculate MET values using a portable indirect calorimeter (IC) for both normal classroom instruction (NCI) and active classroom instruction (ACI).
METHODS: We assessed energy expenditure (EE) and intensity levels (METs) in elementary school children (17 boys and 15 girls) using an IC (COSMED K4b2). Independent t-tests were used to evaluate potential sex and grade level differences for age, BMI, VO2, EE, and METs.
RESULTS: The average EE for NCI and ACI were 1.8 ± 0.4 and 3.9 ± 1.0, respectively. The average intensity level for NCI and ACI were 1.9 ± 0.4 and 4.2 ± 0.9 METs, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: PA delivered through ACI can elicit EE at a moderate intensity level. These results provide evidence for ACI as a convenient/feasible avenue for increasing PA in youth without decreasing instruction time.

PMID: 27392380 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


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