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The Feasibility of Group Video Conferencing for Promotion of Physical Activity in Adolescents With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.

Wed, 11/15/2017 - 19:12
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The Feasibility of Group Video Conferencing for Promotion of Physical Activity in Adolescents With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.

Am J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2017 Nov;122(6):525-538

Authors: Ptomey LT, Willis EA, Greene JL, Danon JC, Chumley TK, Washburn RA, Donnelly JE

Physical activity (PA) rates of adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are low and effective strategies for increasing PA are limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of a group-based PA intervention that was delivered remotely to adolescents with IDD. Participants attended 30-min group PA sessions 3 times a week. PA sessions were delivered in their homes by video conferencing on a tablet computer. Thirty-one participants enrolled and 29 completed the 12-week intervention. Participants attended 77.2% ± 20.8% of scheduled sessions and averaged 26.7 ± 2.8 min of PA/session, with 11.8 ± 4.8 min at moderate- to vigorous intensity. Group-based PA delivered remotely may be a feasible approach for the promotion of PA in adolescents with IDD.

PMID: 29115872 [PubMed - in process]

Predicting resting energy expenditure in young adults.

Wed, 11/08/2017 - 19:11
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Predicting resting energy expenditure in young adults.

Obes Res Clin Pract. 2016 May-Jun;10(3):304-14

Authors: Willis EA, Herrmann SD, Ptomey LT, Honas JJ, Bessmer CT, Donnelly JE, Washburn RA

PURPOSE: To develop and validate a REE prediction equation for young adults.
METHODS: Baseline data from two studies were pooled (N=318; women=52%) and randomly divided into development (n=159) and validation samples (n=159). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry. Stepwise regression was used to develop an equation to predict REE (University of Kansas (KU) equation). The KU equation and 5 additional REE prediction equations used in clinical practice (Mifflin-St. Jeor, Harris-Benedict, Owens, Frankenfield (2 equations)) were evaluated in the validation sample.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences between predicted and measured REE using the KU equation for either men or women. The Mifflin-St. Jeor equation showed a non-significant mean bias in men; however, mean bias was statistically significant in women. The Harris-Benedict equation significantly over-predicted REE in both men and women. The Owens equation showed a significant mean bias in both men and women. Frankenfield equations #1 and #2 both significantly over-predicted REE in non-obese men and women. We found no significant differences between measured REE and REE predicted by the Frankenfield #2 equations in obese men and women.
CONCLUSION: The KU equation, which uses easily assessed characteristics (age, sex, weight) may offer better estimates of REE in young adults compared with the 5 other equations. The KU equation demonstrated adequate prediction accuracy, with approximately equal rates of over and under-prediction. However, enthusiasm for recommending any REE prediction equations evaluated for use in clinical weight management is damped by the highly variable individual prediction error evident with all these equations.

PMID: 26210376 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Obesity is associated with altered mid-insula functional connectivity to limbic regions underlying appetitive responses to foods.

Wed, 09/27/2017 - 16:11
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Obesity is associated with altered mid-insula functional connectivity to limbic regions underlying appetitive responses to foods.

J Psychopharmacol. 2017 Sep 01;:269881117728429

Authors: Avery JA, Powell JN, Breslin FJ, Lepping RJ, Martin LE, Patrician TM, Donnelly JE, Savage CR, Simmons WK

Obesity is fundamentally a disorder of energy balance. In obese individuals, more energy is consumed than is expended, leading to excessive weight gain through the accumulation of adipose tissue. Complications arising from obesity, including cardiovascular disease, elevated peripheral inflammation, and the development of Type II diabetes, make obesity one of the leading preventable causes of morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is of paramount importance to both individual and public health that we understand the neural circuitry underlying the behavioral regulation of energy balance. To this end, we sought to examine obesity-related differences in the resting state functional connectivity of the dorsal mid-insula, a region of gustatory and interoceptive cortex associated with homeostatically sensitive responses to food stimuli. Within the present study, obese and healthy weight individuals completed resting fMRI scans during varying interoceptive states, both while fasting and after a standardized meal. We examined group differences in the pre- versus post-meal functional connectivity of the mid-insula, and how those differences were related to differences in self-reported hunger ratings and ratings of meal pleasantness. Obese and healthy weight individuals exhibited opposing patterns of eating-related functional connectivity between the dorsal mid-insula and multiple brain regions involved in reward, valuation, and satiety, including the medial orbitofrontal cortex, the dorsal striatum, and the ventral striatum. In particular, healthy weight participants exhibited a significant positive relationship between changes in hunger and changes in medial orbitofrontal functional connectivity, while obese participants exhibited a complementary negative relationship between hunger and ventral striatum connectivity to the mid-insula. These obesity-related alterations in dorsal mid-insula functional connectivity patterns may signify a fundamental difference in the experience of food motivation in obese individuals, wherein approach behavior toward food is guided more by reward-seeking than by homeostatically relevant interoceptive information from the body.

PMID: 28944718 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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